A hydraulic pump converts the mechanical energy from the prime mover into hydraulic energy for use by the system. Hydraulic energy is the combination of pressure and flow required by the actuators to perform useful work. It is important to understand that hydraulic energy is both pressure and flow combined, because one without the other cannot achieve work. Pressure would just consist of trapped fluid and flow would have no energy to move fluid alone.
Pressure in hydraulics is the result of Newton’s Third Law of Motion, that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The opposing force can be a loaded cylinder or a flow control, and the pump doesn’t care which. It will continue to push the fluid as pressure rises to overcome resistance, even if it results in something blowing up or the prime mover being overloaded.
Flow from a pump is a function of displacement (volume) and speed. A larger pump can push more fluid at once, or by spinning a pump faster, it will push on fluid more often. Just like in the world of electrons, where power is a combination of voltage and amperage, power in hydraulics is a combination of pressure and flow. By doubling pressure while leaving flow the same, horsepower is doubled. Also, by doubling flow while leaving pressure the same, horsepower is also doubled.
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An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic files and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of rotation of a shaft.
Electric motors can be powered by alternating (AC) current or direct current (DC). DC motors were developed first and have certain advantages and disadvantages. Each type of motor works differently but they all use the power of the electromagnetic field.
AC electric motors use a secondary and primary winding (magnet), the primary is attached to AC grid power (or directly to a generator) and is energized. The secondary receives energy from the primary without directly touching it. This is done using the complex phenomena known as induction.